CHAPTER XXI Edit
SOURCES OF HONEY Edit
Sources from which bees gather their honey are many and unexpected, and often in a locality that would be considered unfavorable, they gather a surplus that is simply surprising. It is not even necessary to locate in a section where the presence of honey-secreting blossoms are noticeably abundant, for there are many plants seldom observed that yield to the beekeeper a goodly supply of honey.
Not every flower that blooms produces honey, and many a humble blossom likely to be overlooked will upon careful examination prove to be a most prolific source of revenue. Nor is it advisable to plant special crops such as alsike, clover, buckwheat, and other plants primarily for the honey they will produce, but rather depend upon the bloom that is always present in greater or less quantity. We would not gainsay the fact that the beekeeper is favored who is located in sections where honey-producing plants are cultivated, but, even so, a close scrutiny of the flora of any locality will reveal the presence of many a source upon which the busy bees will levy a handsome tribute.
Study your locality Edit
The following list taken from a United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin will give some idea of the many sources of supply. The larger the type, the more important the plant:
NORTH AND NORTHEAST NAME [Above 40 N.] TIME OF BLOOM Red or Soft Maple (Acer rubrum) .... April. Alders (Alnus) April. Elm (Ulmus) April. Willows (Salix) Apr.-May. Dandelion (Taraxacum taraxacum = T. officinale of Gray's Manual) Apr.-May. Sugar, Rock,, or Hard Maple (Acer saccharum A. saccharinwn of Gray's Manual) . . Apr.-May. Juneberry, or Service Berry (Amelanchier canadensis) May. Wild Crab Apples (Pyrus) May. GOOSEBERRY and CURRANT (Ribes) . . . May. PEACH, CHERRY, and PLUM (Prunus) . . . May. PEAR and APPLE (Pyrus) May. Huckleberries and Blueberries (Gaylussacia and Vaccinium) May-June COMMON, BLACK, or YELLOW LOCUST (Robinia pseudacacia) May-June. European Horse-chestnut (JEsculus hippocasianum) . . May-June. Common Barberry (Berberis vulgaris) . . May-June. TULIP TREE, or "WHITEWOOD" (Liriodendrvn tulipifera) May-June. Grapevines (Vitis) May-June. Rape (Brassica napus) May June. White Mustard and Black Mustard (Brassica alba and B. nigra) . . June. RASPBERRY (Rubus) June, WHITE CLOVER (Trifolium repens) . . June-July. ALSIKE CLOVER (Trifolium hybridum) . June-July. Edible Chestnut (Castanea dentata C. saliva var. americana of Gray's Manual) . . June-July. ALFALFA, or LUCERN (Medicago saliva) . . June-July. LINDEN, or BASSWOOD (Tilia americana) July. Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) July. Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) . . . July. MELILOT, BOKHARA, or SWEET CLOVER (Melilotus alba) July-Aug. Indian Corn (Zea mays) July-Aug. Melon, Cucumber, Squash, Pumpkin (Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita) . . c . July-Aug. Fireweed (Erechthites hieracifolia) . . t July-Sept. Chicory (Cichorium intybus) July-Sept KNOTWEEDS (Polygonum, especially P. pennsylvanicum and P. persicaria) .... Aug.-Sept. BUCKWHEAT (Fagopyrumfagopyrum = F. esculentum of Gray's Manual) .... Aug.-Sept Indian Currant, or Coral Berry (Symphoricarpos symphoricarpos S. vulgaris of Gray's Manual) Aug.-Sept. GREAT WILLOW-HERB (Epilobium angustifolium) Aug.-Sept. Thoroughwort, or Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) Aug.-Sept Burr Mangolds (Bidens, especially SPANISH NEEDLES, Bidens bipinnata) .... Aug.-Oct. Wild Asters (Aster) Aug.-Oct GOLDENRODS (Solidago) Aug.-Oct MIDDLE SECTION [Between 35 and 40* N.] Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Mar.-Apr. Alder (Alnus rugosa = A. serrulata of Gray's Manual) Mar.-Apr. Red or Soft Maple (Acer rubrum) .... Mar.-Apr. Elm (litmus) Mar.-Apr. Willows (Salix) Mar.-May. Dandelion (Taraxacum taraxacum = T. qfficinale of Gray's Manual) Apr.-May. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) Apr.-May. Juneberry (Amelanchier canadensis) .... Apr.-May. Wild Crab Apples (Pyrus) Apr.-May. Gooseberry and Currant (Ribes) Apr.-May. Rhododendrons (Rhododendron) Apr.-May. Peach, Cherry, and Plum (Prunus) .... Apr.-May. Pear and Apple (Pyrus) Apr.-May. CRIMSON CLOVER (Trifolium incarnatum) . Apr.-May. Huckleberries and Blueberries (Gaylussacia and Vaccinium) * . . May. American Holly (Ilex opaca) May. Black Gum, Sour Gum, Tupelo or Pepperidge (Nyssa aquatica = N. sylvatica of Gray's Manual) May. Manzanitas (Arctostaphylos) (California) . . May. COMMON, BLACK, or YELLOW LOCUST (Robinia pseudacacia) May. Barberry (Berberis canadensis) May. TULIP TREE, or "POPLAR" (Liriodendron tulipifera) > . May. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) .... May-June, Grapevines (Vitis) May-June. Persimmon (Diospyros mrginiana) .... May-June White Clover (Trifolium repens) May-June. Alsike Clover (Trifolium hybridum) .... May-June. RASPBERRY (Rubus) May-June. COWPEA (Vigna sinensis) May-Aug. EDIBLE CHESTNUT (Castanea dentata = C. saliva var. americana of Gray's Manual) June. Chinquapin (Castanea pumila) June. Catalpas, or Indian Bean Trees (Catalpa) . June. MAGNOLIA, or SWEET BAY (Magnolia Glauca) June. LINDEN, or "LINN" (Tilia americana) . . . June. SOURWOOD, or SORREL TREE (Oxydendrum arboreum) June July. Oxeye Daisy, or Whiteweed (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum) June-July. Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) July. Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) . . . July. CLEOME, or " ROCKY MOUNTAIN BEE PLANT'* (Cleome serrulata = C. integrifolia of Gray's Manual) (West) July-Aug. ALFALFA (Medicago saliva) (West) . . . July-Aug. MELILOT, BOKHARA, or SWEET CLOVER (Melilotus alba) July-Aug. Cucumber, Melon, Squash, Pumpkin (Cucumis, Citrullus, and Cucurbita) .... July-Aug. Knolweeds (Polygonum, especially P. pennsylvanicum and P. persicaria) July-Sept. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum fagopyrum = F. esculentum of Gray's Manual) Awg.-Sept. Wild Asters (Aster, especially HEATH-LIKE ASTER, Aster ericoides) . Aug.-Oct Thoroughwort, or Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) Aug.-Oct. Burr Marigolds (Bidens, especially SPANISH NEEDLES, Bidens bipinnata) Aug.-Oct. Goldenrods (Solidago) Aug.-Oct. Indian Corn (Zea mays) July-Aug. SOUTH [Below 35 N.] Redbud (Cerds canadensis) Feb.-Mar. Alder (Alnus rugosa = A. serrulata of Gray's Manual) Feb.-Mar. Red or Soft Maple (Acer rubrum) . / . . Feb.-Mar. Elm (Ulmus) . . . . Feb.-Mar. Willows (Salix) Feb.-Mar. Dandelion (Taraxacum taraxacum=T. officinale of Gray's Manual) Feb.-Mar. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) Feb.-Mar. Carolina Cherry, or Laurel CheiTy (Prunus caroliniana) March. Juneberry (Amelanchier canadensis) . . . March. ORANGE and Lemon (Citrus) Mar.-Apr. Cottonwoods or Poplars (Populus) .... Mar.-Apr. TITI (Cliftonia ligustrina) (Florida and southern Georgia, westward) Mar.-Apr. Gooseberry and Currant (Ribes) . . . , . Mar.-Apr. Peach, Cherry, and Plum (Prunus) .... Mar.-Apr. Pear and Apple (Pyrus) Mar.-Apr. Huckleberries and Blueberries (Gaylussacia and Vaccinium) April. Crimson Clover (Trifolium incarnatum) . . . April. BLACK GUM, SOUR GUM, TUPELO, or PEPPERIDGE (Nyssa aquatica = N. sylvatica of Gray's Manual) April. BALL, or BLACK SAGE (Ramona stachyoides, R. palmeri, etc. = Audibertia stachyoides, etc., of the Botany of California) (California) April. GALLBERRY, or HOLLY (Ilex glabra) .... Apr.-May. Manzanitas (Arctostaphylos) (California) . . Apr.-May. Acacias (Acacia) Apr.-May. Common, Black, or Yellow Locust (Robinia pseudacacia) Apr.-May. Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) .... Apr.-May. EDIBLE CHESTNUT (Castanea dentata = C. sativa var. americana of Gray's Manual) . Apr.-May. Chinquapin (Castanea pumila) Apr. May. Catalpas (Catalpa) Apr.-May. MAGNOLIAS (Magnolia) Apr.-May. Rhododendrons, Rosebays, Azaleas (Rhododendron) Apr.-May-June MESQUITE (Prosopis julifiora) (Texas and westward) Apr.-July. Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) Apr.-Aug.
TULIP TREE, or " POPLAR " (Liriodendron tulipifera) May. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) . . . May. Grapevines (Vitis) May. Raspberry (Rubus) May. China Berry, China Tree, or Pride of India (Melia azedarach) May. WHITE SAGE (Ramona polystachya = Audibertia polystachya of the Botany of California) (California) May-June HORSEMINT (Monarda citriodora) . . . May-July. SOURWOOD, or SORREL TREE (Oxydendrum arboreum) May June. SAW PALMETTO (Serenoa serndata) (coasts of Georgia and Florida) May-June. BANANA (Musa sapientum) May-Sept. LINDEN, or " LINN" (Tilia americana) . . . June. Red Bay (Persea borbonia = P. carolinensis of Gray's Manual) June. Indian Corn (Zea mays) June-July. Cucumber, Melon, Squash, Pumpkin (Cucumis, Citrullus, and Cucurbita) June-July. CABBAGE PALMETTO (Sabcd palmetto), coasts of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) June-July. BLACK MANGROVE (Avicennia tomentosa and A. oblongifolia) (Florida) .... June-July. ALFALFA (Medicago saliva) June-Aug. COTTON (Gossypium herbaceum) June-Aug, MELILOT, BOKHARA, or SWEET CLOVER (Melilotus alba) June-Aug. WILD PENNYROYAL (Hedeoma pulegioides) . June-Sept. BLUE GUM and RED GUM (Eucalyptus globulus and E. rostrata) (California) .... July-Oct. WILD BUCKWHEAT (Eriogonum fasciculatum) (California) Aug.-Sept. Japan or Bush Clover (Lespedeza striata) . . Aug.-Sept. Burr Marigolds (Bidens, especially Spanish Needles, Bidens bipinnata) Aug.-frost. Wild Asters (Aster, especially HEATH-LIKE ASTER, Aster ericoides) Aug.-frost. Goldenrods (Solidago) Aug.-frost. It would be well-nigh impossible to give a complete list of all the flowers that are more or less important, but in addition to the list already given we append the following, by permission of the editor of " Gleanings in Bee Culture," and the beekeeper will do well to study it carefully and familiarize himself with the plants that are present in his immediate vicinity. He will be astonished at the varieties to which his bees have access. Words in small capitals mean the subject is treated of in " Gleanings in Bee Culture." "See" means the subject is treated of under another name. Acacia dealbata, or silver wattle; California, from Australia; commercially important. Acacia decurrens, black wattle; California; similar to the above. Acacia farnesia (huisache); along the Rio Grande; much grown in Europe as an ornamental plant. Acacia Greggii (catclaw, or una de gato), Southwest Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona see CATCLAW. Actinomeris squarrosa, golden honey-plant. Agave Americana, pulque, CENTURY PLANT; Mexico, Southern United States. Aguinaldo (Ipomea sidcefolia), Cuba see BELLFLOWER. Alders (Alnus). Alfilarila (Erodium cicutarium), or pin clover; Arizona and California; an excellent honey and forage plant from Europe see " pin clover ' ' under head of CLOVER. Alfalfa, or lucern (Medicago sativa), see ALFALFA. Algarroba (Inga dulsis) and other species. Alsike or Swedish clover (Trifolium hybridum) see ALSIKE CLOVER. Anchusa tindoria, dye-plant. All the anchusas are excellent bee-plants. Antignon leptopus, Mexican rose, or coralita, California, Florida, West Indies, and Mexico; an excellent honey-plant. Apple (Pyrus). The whole apple family is here meant see FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca), California. Archas sapota, sapodilla ; fruit-tree of the tropics ; Florida. Ash (Fraxinus ornus) or flowering or manna ash; planted south for its beauty. Asters (Aster) of many species almost everywhere see ASTERS. Asparagus (Asparagus offirinalis), cultivated. Artichoke, true or globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). Avocada pear (Persea gratissima), Florida. Banana (Musa sapientum and M. Cavendishii), Florida and the tropics generally. Berberry (Berberis vulgaris). Basil, or mountain mint (Pycnanthemum lanceolatum). Basswood, or American linden (Tilia Americana, also T. heterophylla), Southern Kentucky, and Allegheny Mountains see BASSWOOD. Beans (Phaseolus lunatus), lima beans in California; horse beans (P. nanus) in British Isles and Holland. Bee-balm (Melissa officinalis), garden flower. Beggar-tick, or burr marigold (Bidens frondosa), United States see SPANISH NEEDLE. Bellflower, Christmas bells, Christmas pop, aguinaldo, campanilla, etc. (Ipomea sidcefolia), of Cuba, Jamaica, and other West India islands and Mexico. Bergamot (Monarda fatulosa), a kind of mint; United States. Bignonia radicans, south see NECTAR. Blackberry (Rubus), of many species; Europe and United States. Black gum see NYASSA or TUPELO. Black mangrove (Avicennia nitida) ; Florida and the coasts of all tropic seas; generally known as mangrove except in British Guiana, where it is known as "courida" see MANGROVE. Blackheart, or water smartweed (Polygonum acre), closely related to buckwheat; Illinois. Black mustard (Brassica nigra) see MUSTARD. Black sage (Ramona stachyaides and R. palmeri), California see SAGE. Bladdernut (Staphylea trifolia) % north and west. Blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus), Tasmania and California see EUCALYPTUS. Blue thistle (Echium vulgare) viper's bugloss; a weed from Europe; Virginia and Pennsylvania. Boneset, or thoroughwort (Eupatorium perfoliatum), a honey-plant of considerable importance. Borage (Borago officinalis), Europe, but now well known in the United States. Box-elder, or ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo), Northern States. Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens), the tree box of the Balearic Islands and Turkey; produces much honey but it is very bitter ; introduced into the U. S. Buckbush (Symphoricarpus vulgaris) see BUCKBUSH. Buckeye (JEsculus glabra), Ohio and similar States. Buckthorn (Rhamnus catharticus) , Southern States. Buttercup, oxalis of Bermuda (Oxalis Bermudiana), fine for those who wish to plant for bees. Buckwheat (Polygonum fagopyrum) see BUCKWHEAT. Buckwheat, wild (Polygonum acre), also blackheart. Burdock (Lappa major), has white pollen. Burr marigold (Bidensfrondosa), a near relative of Spanish needle, which see. Bush honeysuckle (Diervilla Japonica), cultivated, Japan. Button-bush (Cephalanthus ocddentalis) ; important on the overflowed lands of the Mississippi. Butterweed (Senecio lobatus), South and Southwest. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) common cabbage: see also colza, rape, turnip, charlock, white and black mustard, belonging to the Cabbage family. Campanilla (Ipomea sidcefolia), Cuba see BELLFLOWER. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), in Canada. Cassia (Cassia chamcecrista). Probably all cassias are honey-plants. Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) ; good where grown for seed; very common in Argentina. Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis). Carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua) St. John's bread for the Southwest; similar to catclaw. Carpenter's square see FIGWORT. Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa), hardy catalpa, planted for its timber and shade. Catclaw (Acacia Greggii), important in the Southwest > see CATCLAW. Catnip (Nepeta cataria), an important honey-plant in Europe and North America. Ceratonia siliquat or St. John's bread, now introduced into the United States from Europe, will probably become important. Chaste-tree (Vitex agnus castus) introduced from Europe into parks, cemeteries, etc. This and the New Zealand species, Vitex littorales, are excellent. Chayote (Sechium edule), grown as a vegetable around New Orleans; a good honey-plant. Cherry (Prunus cerasus), the cultivated cherry. Chick pea (Cicer arietinum), known in the West as coffee pea; grown very largely in Mexico "garbanza." Chicory (Cichoriwn intybus), cultivated in Europe a common weed here. Chinquapin (Castanea pumila), of considerable importance to the South. Cleome integrifolia, also C. spinosa, same as Rocky Mountain bee-plant, which see. Clovers see article under this head ; also ALFALFA, ALSIKE, SAINFOIN, SULLA, CRIMSON CL., SWEET and PEAVINE CL. Clover, alsike (Trifolium hybridium), Swedish clover see CLOVER. Clover, crimson (Trifolium incarnatum) see CRIMSON CLOVER. Clover, red (Trifolium pratense) see CLOVER, Clover, yellow (Trifolium procumbens), New England, Eastern and Middle States to Tennessee. Cocoanut (Cocoa nucifera), Florida and the tropics. Coffee (Cqffea Arabica and Liberica); honey clear, but season very short ; sometimes grown in Florida. Coreopsis (Coreopsis arislosa) see SPAN, NEEDLE ; Illinois and Missouri. Corn, Indian (Zea mays) ; under certain conditions maize, or corn, is a good honey-plant. Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) ; south ; some say it compares with clover. Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) ; Southern States. Crab apple (Pyrus coronaria), New York; west and south. Crocus (Crocus), of many species; both spring and fall varieties are good. Crowfoot (Ranunculus repens). Cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In the vicinity of picklefactories this plant yields quite a harvest of honey after clover is over. Culver's root (Veronica Virginicd) ; north. Currant (Ribes rubrum), from Europe; cultivated. Cytisus proliferous alba tree alfalfa; grown a little in California ; a great honey-plant in the Canary Islands. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). Date (Phoenix dactyliferd) ; a great honey-plant now being planted in Arizona and California. Duranta plumieri, or pigeon-berry, recently introduced into Florida and California; an exquisite honey-plant. Ebony (Zygia flexicaulis) , Southwest Texas not the true ebony. Echinops spherocephalus, also E. ritro excellent plants for introduction see CHAPMAN, H. P. Elms (Ulmus), of various species. Where plentiful the elms are of considerable importance on account of their aid in early brood-rearing. Eriobotrya Japonica loquat fruit of Japan ; excellent honey-plant; Florida, Gulf Coast, California, Georgia, and Arizona; known in some sections as Japan plum. Esparcette see SAINFOIN. False indigo (Amorpha fructicosa), Ohio, Pennsylvania; south and west. Figwort (Scrofularia nodosa) see FIGWORT. Fireweed, or willow-herb, which see (Epilobium angustifolium), the great fireweed of the North; Ontario, Quebec, Northern Michigan, and the Hudson Bay country. Fog-fruit (Lippia nodiflora), California (carpet-weed) ; Texas and the West Indies; a great honey-plant, but little known. See CARPET GRASS. Freesia refracta alba, an exquisite honey-plant grown in California for its bulbs ; also in Florida and the Gulf Coast. Gallberry, or holly (Ilex glabra), south; important. Genip (Melicocca bijuga), in South Florida; heavy yieldei where common. Germander, or wood-sage (Teucrium Canadense). Giant hyssop (Lophanthus) species, north and west. Gill-over-the-ground, or ground-ivy (Nepeta glechoma). Giant mignonette (Reseda grandiflora) see MIGNONETTE Golden apple (Spondias dulcis), Florida. Golden honey-plant (Actinomeris squarrosa). Goldenrod (Solidago) , species. Gooseberry (Ribes grossularia). Grape (Vitis labrusea). Ground-ivy (Nepeta glechoma). Heal-all, or figwort (Scrofularia nodosa) see FIGWORT. Hibiscus esculentus okra, or gumbo, of the South. Hibiscus sabdariffa Jamaica sorrel of Florida. Huajilla (Zygia brevifolia), Texas and adjacent countries. See HUAJILLA. Hawthorn (Cratagus Oxycanihd), Great Britain, Ireland, and North Europe; introduced here. Hazelnut and filbert (Corylus avelana and C. Americana), valuable in early spring for pollen. HEARTSEASE, which see, or large smartweed (Persicaria mite) , on the overflowed lands of the Mississippi River. Heather (Erica vulgaris); a prolific source of honey in Europe and the British Isles. The honey is thick, with a rich flavor. In the same latitude on this continent its place is taken by the fireweed, which see an excellent yielder also. Hercules club (Aralia spinosa). Hemp (Cannabis saliva, also C. Indica), ganja of the East. Horehound (Marrubium vulgare). Good yields of honey have been reported from this plant; but it is so bitter as to be worthless except as medicine. It might improve with age. Hog-plum (Spondias lutea) ; Florida ; a splendid yielder of honey. Known as hobo in Cuba. Holly, American (Ilex opaca). Honey-locust (Gleditschia triacanthos), also known as white locust. Honeysuckle (Lonicera capnfolia), and some other species not so well known. Horse-chestnut (Mculus kippocastanum) , European species. Horsemint, which see (Monarda fistula). Hoya carnosa, or wax-plant see NECTAR. Huisache, Mexican name for Acacia Farnesiana, a beautiful tree of the Southwest, similar to catclaw. Indian currant, coral-berry, buckbush, which see (Symphoricarpus vulgaris). Ironwood, or hornbeam (Carpinus Americana). Japanese buckwheat see BUCKWHEAT. Japan plum; south; same as "loquat." Japan privet (Ligustrum Japonicum), all Southern States and California; hedge-plant of the best. Judas-tree, redbud (Cercis Canadensis). June-berry, service-berry, shad-berry (Amelanchier Canadensis). Knotweed, or, HEARTSEASE which see (Persicaria mite). Lantana (L. nivea and L. mixta), Florida, Bahamas, and Bermuda. Lemon (Citrus limonum), Florida and California. Lentil (Ervum lens), or pulse of the East; much used in Europe to make soup. Italians grow it in this country. Lime (Tilia Europea), English name for linden or basswood; now much planted as an avenue tree in the United States. Lime (Citrus limetta) ; Florida, California, and the West Indies. Limnanthes Douglasii, or marsh-flower; native of California; cultivated in England for bees. Linden (Tilia Europea), or European basswood; famous in Berlin and other places as a street tree; now popular in the United States. Liquidambar Styraciflua, sweet gum ; very important, particularly south. Locust, which see (Robinia pseudacacia) ; now being planted for its timber in Ohio and other States. See LOCUST. Logwood (Hcematoxylon Campechianum); the various states bordering on the bay of Campeche; introduced into Florida, Jamaica, West Indies, and South America. See LOGWOOD. Loquat (Eriobotyra Japonica) ; sometimes wrongly named Japan plum ; south ; valuable because it flowers very late. Lucern (Medicago sativa); the English name for the Spanish alfalfa. Lupine (Lupinus perennis). Madrona (Arbutus Xalapensis), southwest. Magnolia (M. grandiflora and others) ; south. Malva (M. alcea). Mammoth red or peavine clover see CLOVER. Manzanita (Arctostaphylos) , California. Maples (Acer), species. The different species are of much value, yielding well for early brood-rearing. Marigold, which see (Gailardia pulchelld). Marjoram (Origanum vulgare). Marsh sunflower (Helianthus strumosus). Matrimony-vine (Lycium vulgare}. Meadow-sweet, or spiraea (Spirea salicifolia). Melilot (Melilotus alba), or honey lotus see SWEET CLOVER, white and yellow. Melons (Cucurbita melo). Melons of all kinds are valuable to apiarists. Mesquite, which see (Prosopis pubescens and juliflora) ; southwest and New Mexico. Mignonette (Reseda odorata). Milkweed (Asclepias cornuti). Milk-vetch (Astragalus Canadensis). Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca). Mountain laurel, sheep laurel, rhododendron (Kalmia latifolia), famous for producing honey which has sickening properties see POISONOUS H. P. Mustard (Brassica arvensis), charlock of England. Okra, or gumbo (Hibiscus esculentus). Onion (Allium cepa). There are reports of yields of honey from fields of onions cultivated for seed, having very strongly the peculiar onion odor, which, however, disappears after a time. Orange (Citrus aurantium); considered valuable in some places. Oxeye daisy (Bellis integrifolia) ; Kentucky and southwest Palmetto. Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), from the common parsnip run wild. Partridge pea (Cassia chamcecrista) . Peach (Prunus Persica) see FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. Peavine, or mammoth red clover (Trifolium pratense) see CLOVER. Pecans (Hicoria Pecan). Good in the South. Pepperidge see TUPELO. Peppermint (Mentha vulgaris). Pepper-tree (Schinus molle), California and Florida; fine shade-tree; excellent for honey. Persimmon (Diospyrus Virginianum and Texana) ; known as "lotus" in Europe. Phacelia tanacetifolia, a beautiful garden-plant from California. Phormium tenax, New Zealand flax; sometimes grown south ; good yielder ; may become very important commercially. Pin-clover, or alfilarila (Erodium Cicutarium Geranicce). Plane-tree (Platanus orientalis), also known as sycamore or buttonwood; good in Europe, and introduced here; similar to our sycamore ; a fine shade-tree. Plantain, or rib-grass (Plantago major}, has white pollen. Plantain fruit (Musa paradisica), similar to the banana, but extensively used as a vegetable in all tropic latitudes, Florida, and Porto Rico. Pleurisy-root (Asclepias tuberosa) ; highly praised by James Heddon. Plums. All kinds of wild plums yield honey. Poinciana regia, Florida. Poplar, or whitewood, which see (Liriodendron tulipifera) Poplar (Populus), south. Prairie clover (Petalostemon Candida), good in Texas. Protect mellifera alba, South Africa; a wonderful yielder of honey. See NECTAR. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo); cultivated; the original, C. ovifera, runs wild in Texas. Rape (Brassica campestris). Raspberry (Rubus strigosus), Northern Michigan and similar localities; R. idcesis, European raspberry, and R. rosoefolius, Porto Rico and West Indies. Rattan (Berchemia scandens) ; Texas ; a heavy yielder. Rattlesnake root, or white lettuce (Nabalus altissimus). Rattleweed, or figwort, which see. Redbay (Persea Carolinensis), south. Redbud, or Judas-tree (Cercis Canadensis). Red gum (Eucalyptus rostrata), California and native of Australia. Rhododendron, species; rosebays, azaleas, species; and sheep laurels, or mountain laurels; important in the mountains of the South; known in England as American plants. Rhododendron pontica was the source of the honey which poisoned Xenophon's army of ten thousand. Rocky Mountain bee-plant, which see (Cleome integrifolia). Royal palm (Oreodoxa regia) , Florida, Cuba, and Porto Rico Rose apple (Eugenia jambos), Florida; very important in Cuba and Porto Rico. Sage, black (Ramona stachyoides and R. potmen); very important in California see SAGE. Sage, white (Ramona polystachia) ; Cattfornia. St. John's-wort (Hypericum) , species. Sage, button, same as black sage, which see. Sainfoin, which see (Onobrychis saliva)', a great plant, similar to alfalfa. Saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) ; Georgia and Florida. Serradella clover (Ornithopus sativus) ; a fine honey-plant, similar to sainfoin, which see. Shadbush (Amelanchier Canadensis) , also known as Juneberry and service-berry. Shaddock, pomelo, or grape fruit (Citrus decumana); Florida and California. Simpson honey-plant, same as figwort, which see. Smartweed, same as heartsease, which see. Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale). Sorrel-tree, same as sourwood, which see. Sourwood (Oxydendron arboreum); Pennsylvania, Ohio, and south. Spanish needle, which see (Coreopsis aristosa and C. aurea), better known as tickseed. Spider-flower or spider-plant, which see (Cleome pungens). Square-stalk, same as figwort, which see. Squash (Cucurbita maxima). Stone crop (Sedum pulchellum), south. Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) ; cultivated. Sulla clover (Hedysarum coronarium), or Spanish sainfoin; A good honey-plant for the Gulf States. Sumac (Rhus venenata). Sunflower (Helianthus major). Sweet clover (Melilotus alba) see CLOVER. Sweet gum see Liquidambar styraciflua. Sweet potato (Ipomea batata). Tea (Thea Bohea). Thistle (Cirsium arvense), Canada. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris). The classical honey of Mount Hymettus was from this. Tickseed, or Spanish needle, which see. Ti-Ti (Cliftonia manophylla) ; Georgia and Florida principally. Touch-me-not, or swamp balsam (Impatiens pallida) see POLLEN. Trefoil, or clover, which see. Tulip-tree, or whitewood, which see (Liriodendron tulipifera). Tupelo (Nyssa multiflora), common tupelo, or sour gum; N. aquatica, water tupelo or gum; N. uniflora, large tupelo; JV. capitala, Ogeechee lime; very important south. Turnip (Brassica depressa). Valerian (Valeriana edulus) ; Ohio and westward. Varnish-tree (Alyanthus glandulosa) ; south from Japan; honey bad. Vervain (Verbena officinalis). Viper's bugloss, or blue thistle, which see (Echium vulgare). Vetch (Vicia), species. Virginia creeper (Ampelopsis quinquefolia). Vitus bipinnata, south. Vitex agnus castus, chaste-tree in Europe and United States ; introduced ; V. littoralis, important in New Zealand. White mustard (Brassica alba). Whitewood, which see (Liriodendron tulipifera). White sage (Ramona polystachya) , California. Wild buckwheat (Polygonum); produces a light-colored honey. Wild cherry (Prunus Pennsijlvanica), north. Wild senna (Cassia chamcecrista) . Wild rose (Rosa Carolina, lucida, blanda, canina, rugosa). Wild sunflower (Helianthus) , species. Willow (Salix). All species form an important class, coming as they do early in the season, and yielding both honey and pollen. WILLOW-HERB, which see (Epilobium angustifolium) , northern parts of the United States and Canada. Wistaria (Wistaria chinensis). Yellow-wood (Virgilia lutea). Virginia. One of the finest native ornamental trees.
CONCLUDING WORD Edit
LET no one imagine from the foregoing chapters of this work that beekeeping is a royal road to wealth, for there is a vast amount of experience and hard work demanded to make it a success, but it can be said in all truthfulness, that for the amount of time and application given to this most interesting department of rural life, the returns are far greater than in almost any other field of endeavor.
To be out in the great outdoors, amid the hum of these marvellously active and wonderfully intelligent creatures, is compensation enough in itself for the labor we give to them. But taking a more practical and perhaps sordid view of the subject, there is no reason in the world why any man or woman of intelligence may not, after several seasons' experience, make the bee a sole means of livelihood, and in the doing have their work confined to the most delightful months of the year. The practical work in the bee yard will be compassed between March and November, while the rest of the year may be devoted to disposing of the crop or in other avenues of congenial endeavor.
Beekeeping has been called the poetry of agriculture, and certainly there is no more noble profession on earth, nor one in which the exercise of skill and experience will bring a more liberal income for men and women who give their time and effort to its pursuit. As we stand amid the hives and hear the merry hum of its many thousand denizens, there will come to us again and again a feeling of contentment in the knowledge that their multiplied efforts are in our behalf; and when the season draws near for the gathering of the harvest of golden nectar, how proud we are to know that owing to our skill and direction, the busy little people have succeeded in gathering far more nectar than if left to their own inclinations. The greatest of the world's writers have written of these wonderful little creatures; how infinitely better is it to know and care for them and realize they are ours, and have wrought to make us happier and wealthier.